Archive for » May, 2012 «

New York Plans to Ban Sale of Big Sizes of Sugary Drinks

The proposed ban would affect virtually the entire menu of popular sugary drinks found in delis, fast-food franchises and even sports arenas, from energy drinks to pre-sweetened iced teas. The sale of any cup or bottle of sweetened drink larger than 16 fluid ounces — about the size of a medium coffee, and smaller than a common soda bottle — would be prohibited under the first-in-the-nation plan, which could take effect as soon as next March.

The measure would not apply to diet sodas, fruit juices, dairy-based drinks like milkshakes, or alcoholic beverages; it would not extend to beverages sold in grocery or convenience stores.

“Obesity is a nationwide problem, and all over the United States, public health officials are wringing their hands saying, ‘Oh, this is terrible,’ ” Mr. Bloomberg said in an interview on Wednesday in the Governor’s Room at City Hall.

“New York City is not about wringing your hands; it’s about doing something,” he said. “I think that’s what the public wants the mayor to do.”

A spokesman for the New York City Beverage Association, an arm of the soda industry’s national trade group, criticized the city’s proposal on Wednesday. The industry has clashed repeatedly with the city’s health department, saying it has unfairly singled out soda; industry groups have bought subway advertisements promoting their cause.

“The New York City health department’s unhealthy obsession with attacking soft drinks is again pushing them over the top,” the industry spokesman, Stefan Friedman, said. “It’s time for serious health professionals to move on and seek solutions that are going to actually curb obesity. These zealous proposals just distract from the hard work that needs to be done on this front.”

Mr. Bloomberg’s proposal requires the approval of the Board of Health, a step that is considered likely because the members are all appointed by him, and the board’s chairman is the city’s health commissioner, who joined the mayor in supporting the measure on Wednesday.

Mr. Bloomberg has made public health one of the top priorities of his lengthy tenure, and has championed a series of aggressive regulations, including bans on smoking in restaurants and parks, a prohibition against artificial trans fat in restaurant food and a requirement for health inspection grades to be posted in restaurant windows.

The measures have led to occasional derision of the mayor as Nanny Bloomberg, by those who view the restrictions as infringements on personal freedom. But many of the measures adopted in New York have become models for other cities, including restrictions on smoking and trans fats, as well as the use of graphic advertising to combat smoking and soda consumption, and the demand that chain restaurants post calorie contents next to prices.

In recent years, soda has emerged as a battleground in efforts to counter obesity. Across the nation, some school districts have banned the sale of soda in schools, and some cities have banned the sale of soda in public buildings.

In New York City, where more than half of adults are obese or overweight, Dr. Thomas Farley, the health commissioner, blames sweetened drinks for up to half of the increase in city obesity rates over the last 30 years. About a third of New Yorkers drink one or more sugary drinks a day, according to the city. Dr. Farley said the city had seen higher obesity rates in neighborhoods where soda consumption was more common.

The ban would not apply to drinks with fewer than 25 calories per 8-ounce serving, like zero-calorie Vitamin Waters and unsweetened iced teas, as well as diet sodas.

Restaurants, delis, movie theater and ballpark concessions would be affected, because they are regulated by the health department. Carts on sidewalks and in Central Park would also be included, but not vending machines or newsstands that serve only a smattering of fresh food items.

At fast-food chains, where sodas are often dispersed at self-serve fountains, restaurants would be required to hand out cup sizes of 16 ounces or less, regardless of whether a customer opts for a diet drink. But free refills — and additional drink purchases — would be allowed.

Colin Moynihan contributed reporting.

Lose Weight Inside of a Week With Such 5 Easy Steps

However, you can lose weight in a week along with being realistic and actually really simple to lose 2 to 5 lb (1-2 kg) just using one week. And fortunately that if you make use of what I say and stay with it, you won’t get rid of 10 pounds in a week, but you may indeed lose it around two or two and a half weeks. Now that is still ways to achieve fast losing weight, don’t you imagine?

So after I have received you excited, isn’t it time to learn the best way to lose weight in the week?

1. If you want to lose weight in a week you first has to be prepared to change some things in your way of life. I mean, get honest with your own self here, the definition involving insanity is doing exactly the same thing regularly and expecting a unique result. So first pay close attention to, ‘am I ridiculous, because obviously what I have already been doing has possibly not yet helped me slim down fast and will not be going to. ‘ Then expect you’ll make some improvements.

3. Now that you may have really decided you want to achieve weight deprivation results fast, you must take massive actions. Cut out many processed foods, fast food, sugar, and almost any food that sports a grain product, including any wholesome itself.

3. To forfeit weight fast lower out all dairy food, and I mean all of them, cheese, yogurt, of milk, butter and so forth.

some. I know that sounds drastic but spouse fast solution, next this works. Next thing drink water together with water only, certainly no coffee, tea, soda pops, diet sodas, liquid or alcohol.

5. Lastly you will need to eat food and much it. Select your foods from hard working liver, a variety of fresh vegetables and fruit and a small number of raw nuts. And if you keep it to this list you can actually eat almost up to you like.

So that’s how you lose weight a single week, 2-5 pounds (1-2 kg) simple. Try it; it truly works. These few simple things will assist you lose weight rapidly.
Everyone can lose fat, so long as they definitely take the best suited steps. This article will allow you to find the right tips to work with you in your fat loss regime. While shedding pounds can be difficult sometimes, perseverance and labor will get anyone through.

Many reports have shown that having some muscular physique makes it possible burn more calories that developing a body with excess fat. It will also make it easier to lose weight. To boost muscle mass, strength train every other evening.

For no reason skip breakfast. Lots of people think that by skipping dinner, they ingest less calories. This is a misconception, because skipping this important meal gives you hungrier in the daytime, which will, unquestionably, lead to your consuming more calories.

If you happen to must give straight into your cravings with regard to something sweet, try a joint of angel food torte. Sometimes, cravings tend to be difficult to simply ignore. Some cakes, which include angel food, are extremely light. check it out

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Trapped dental ‘calculus’ holds clues to ancient human diets and health

Tartar, also known as dental calculus, is a hard substance that toothpaste ads promise to obliterate and dentists scrape away. It builds up on after solidifies. A dentist might scrape away 30 milligrams of a patient’s calculus each visit. Sets of teeth from hundreds or thousands of years ago might have up to 20 times that much, a mass roughly equal to a small paperclip.

Scientists are only beginning to explore the variety of materials caught in calculus, which preserves organic materials that are often fleetingly preserved in other settings. This allows scientists to address questions that are very difficult to answer using established archaeological methods.

“There are so many time periods in human history where we have theories about what they ate but we really have no idea,” said Amanda Henry, a physical anthropologist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, in Leipzig, Germany.

Seeds and grains often degrade slowly and typically last even longer. But finding direct evidence of is more difficult. Vegetables such as cabbage and carrots were important foods in , but evidence to confirm their consumption is hard to come by. Reconstructing the full diet for people living in earlier periods is even more difficult.

“We know very little about the vegetable and salad portion of the diet,” said Christina Warinner, an archaeological geneticist at University of Zurich’s Centre for Evolutionary Medicine, in Switzerland. “[Studying calculus] could potentially be an entirely new way of approaching that.”

Small Fossils, Big Information

Calculus contains pollen grains and microscopic fossilized plant pieces called phytoliths, in addition to starch grains and even bacteria. Fragments of bacterial DNA found in calculus can help identify specific pathogens that were once present in the mouths of ancient people.

The plant evidence can be definitive enough to suggest the species that was consumed, or it may suggest what part of a plant was eaten, such as a fruit or leaf. This can help track the use, spread and evolution of food plants, including agricultural varieties, through time and space.

Researchers can examine the calculus directly on the tooth with a microscope. But for further analysis, they carefully scrape the material off ancient teeth with common dental tools to avoid contaminating the samples with modern material. From that scraped-off tartar, they then carefully remove non-organic material to concentrate the food remnants.

Scientists use microscopes and molecular methods to examine the samples. Examining the small bits of food they find is challenging some long-held beliefs about ancient peoples and helping to answer significant questions.

Henry has been studying Neanderthal diet and working to confirm her initial results that they ate plants regularly. Some researchers have long argued that Neanderthals were primarily carnivores who depended on meat and fat.

“We were able to show that [Neanderthals] did eat plant foods and they processed these foods,” said Henry. “It’s the first time we have evidence of what those plant foods are.”

Henry and her collaborators identified grass seeds, tubers that may have been related to water lilies, and at least in a location in present-day Iraq, the foods had been cooked.

Jaime Pagan-Jimenez, a Puerto Rico-based anthropologist working at Leiden University in the Netherlands, recently began analyzing calculus to obtain more evidence in his study of diets throughout the Caribbean islands.

Pagan-Jimenez had already studied starch grains found in artifacts used to process and cook foods, concluding that the people who first lived on the Caribbean islands were, in at least many cases, cultivating a variety of food plants, such as corn, sweet potato, beans, and more. His findings also challenged the idea that the area’s main food crop was manioc, a root also known as cassava or yucca. The new technique allows him to confirm what foods actually reached the mouth.

“We had the chance of seeing directly in the human tooth what plants they were eating at different time periods and sub-regions in the Caribbean islands,” Pagan-Jimenez wrote to Inside Science in an email.

That evidence changes the interpretation of other archaeological findings.

“It turns out that these tools that we’ve called manioc scrapers were not at all used for processing manioc,” said Henry.

Starch grains, such as those found in cooking pots, are well-established evidence of food processing and consumption. Scientists also look for clues about food consumption in the atomic makeup of bones and tooth enamel. However, calculus allows researchers to attain a greater level of detail.

“For starch grains studies in archeology, human dental calculus is the last piece of the ‘broad picture’ for acquiring direct information on the whole process of plant preparation and consumption as food,” said Pagan-Jimenez.

Health Hints

Dental plaque contains all manner of information about an individual’s health. It can contain clues about tuberculosis, stomach ulcers and more. Since calculus is formed from plaque, it seemed natural to Warinner to investigate the preservation of health information.

“It seems like a great way to actually access so much health information about ancient peoples that otherwise has been really, really hard to do,” said Warinner.

One significant modern change is a highly processed diet, which is often accompanied by fluoridated water. How does the state of modern people’s mouths differ from that of their ancestors? Because calculus can preserve oral bacteria, it opens new doors to scientists.

“One of the things we don’t know very well is what actually is our natural or ancestral state of health in our mouth,” said Warinner. “We can look at specific dental diseases and try to understand how they have changed over time.”

Warinner said that in addition to bacteria from the mouth, calculus also contains bacteria that originated in other areas of the body. These bacteria can provide more information on the array of tiny organisms that inhabit the human body, called the microbiome. Doctors are becoming increasingly aware of the relationship between this collection of flora and human health. Data gathered from genetic material found in samples such as calculus is termed metagenomic, and can greatly enhance scientists’ ability to research the historical microbiome.

“[Calculus] allows us unparalleled access to these more distant organ systems that we’ve almost never had access to in the archaeological record except in some exceptional circumstances,” said Warinner.

“The idea that metagenomic data from archaeological dental calculus can provide a glimpse of ancient human diet and health is very clever, and if validated, it will be a very exciting discovery!” wrote Cecil Lewis, a molecular anthropologist at the University of Oklahoma, in an email.

Warinner is currently studying samples from medieval Germany, in part to establish the reliability of calculus research. She’s looking at pathogens, including those that cause ailments such as colds and flus. The method may allow Warinner and others to compare how certain diseases affected people throughout history and across continents.

“We could look at how their virulence has changed over time,” said Warinner. “Were they more virulent in the past than today, or not?”

Clean Sample

Techniques to deduce ancient diets and disease from dental calculus are still being established and verified.  Molecules of DNA in dental calculus are often degraded, and the more time has passed, the lower the chance that the sample is pristine, which makes interpretation more complicated.

Scientists are also uncertain as to how comprehensively calculus can portray diet. Not all foods that are consumed will be found in calculus. Although finding evidence that a food was in a person’s mouth is significant, it doesn’t necessarily explain how often the food was eaten, or what proportion of the overall diet it represented.

“We must be conscious that ancient people did not only eat starchy seeds or tubers; they also ate leaves, flowers, and so on,” said Pagan-Jimenez.

“What percentage of a person’s diet is represented in that record? We don’t know,” said Henry. “Any technique, you need to work out all the bugs before all academics buy it.

Scientists are still forming a full picture of all the components found inside ancient dental calculus, said Warinner.

Henry said she planned to examine calculus “for other kinds of plant residues or even animal food residues.” She said that the technique may help solve an important mystery: when humans began cooking their food — answers currently range from a few hundred thousand to more than 1.5 million years ago.

Both Henry and Warinner said they planned to reveal more findings, about Neanderthal diet and respiratory pathogens, respectively, in the near future.


Inside Science News Service
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Losing Weight, Hate and Obesity Bias

When she was an overweight teen, bullies relentlessly tormented Natt Smith, one of The Huffington Post’s weight loss success stories.

“I was walking down the science hall and one of the notorious school bullies poured milk over my head and followed me around making mooing sounds, pausing only intermittently to ask why I was so fat.”

Part of me wants to cry and part of me wants to get in the car and find the guy. This infuriates me.

Last time, I wrote about the humiliation and insults I endured as a fat kid, and I stressed how much worse it is for women, how there is an evil gender bias in obesity. For women, because of their metabolic disadvantage relative to men, it is much easier for them to become obese and much more difficult to solve the problem. It is terribly unfair but true. In addition, women suffer torments and indignities that the men are not subjected to, that men escape. Please read “The Evil Gender Bias of Obesity and Weight Gain” to get the details. At the end of the article I promised to tell you what should be done about it. Here it is:

1) Prosecute Persecution

We need to stop fooling around with bullying, hate and unfair discrimination. People need to be stopped from committing hate crimes and illegal discrimination — jailed, regardless of age, if that’s the only way to stop them. We need to stop excusing and pooh-poohing evil masquerading as “humor.” Responsible citizens need to call it out when they encounter hate and harm and loudly denounce it for all to hear. We need to recognize the evil in our midst to extinguish it.

We have laws against assault and battery. We have laws against hate crimes and certain kinds of discrimination. We need to enforce the laws faithfully and arrest and prosecute the violators. Committing battery with milk because a person is overweight (or scissors, as in the case of Gov. Romney’s classmate) is a vile act, a battery and a hate crime. Acts like that should be aggressively prosecuted.

We need laws against the intentional infliction of psychological harm, bullying. We need to refine our current laws to include discrimination and hate based on physical characteristics and body size. Obesity is a disorder of great complexity, less understood than AIDS of the current era and leprosy of the past. Those with no clinical credentials who claim to know it all need to be put in their place, told to be quiet about things they are not qualified to lecture about, especially when it harms others. They need to be stopped, by force of law, if necessary. No one should be treated unmercifully and unlawfully by the mean and ignorant because of a disorder, which obesity is.

2) Find the Solution

I was put on a diet at the age of 7. It didn’t work. As time went on, I got fatter. I developed some bad habits of course, but so did all the other kids. Not everyone else got fat like I did. Then I noticed that dieting seemed to work a lot better for others, where the same dieting did not work for me. It occurred to me that there was something different about me, relative to weight gain and dieting.

Now I know that I have a condition, probably genetically ordered. It’s a predisposition to obesity called “Weight Loss Resistance” (WLR) and I have joined Dr. David Katz’s National Exchange for Weight Loss Resistance to explore the phenomena. This, like the gender bias I described in my prior article, makes achieving and maintaining a healthy weight extremely difficult in our culture.

Many who have found their obesity impossible to resolve have learned that their problem is related to these genetic biases, and they have found great relief in stopping the self-blaming and self-condemnation that had become a habit. Now they could accept themselves without judgment, just as they were. This has given rise to a movement to accept obese people as OK, to accept obesity as OK, “fat acceptance.”

When I was over 300 pounds, hating my body and myself, I learned that loving myself unconditionally is a prerequisite for getting better. I learned that I had to love my body, stretch marks and all. I had to love myself despite all the failures of the past and weaknesses. I learned that we will only care for and help what we love. We neglect what we don’t care for and we destroy what we hate. Nothing good comes from hating. Those who decide to accept obese people as OK and stop punishing and abusing them are on the right track.

However, when I learned to accept myself as I was, imperfect and obese, I still had a big problem. I had stopped judging and I started liking myself, which was good. But I was still obese, getting worse, and getting sick with it. Obesity is a killer, especially as you get older. My days were numbered, and my life and quality of life were being snuffed out by my weight. Accepting obesity as OK, “fat acceptance,” is not a solution.

Fortunately, my life and work led to a respect for the natural sciences and the science of behaviorism. We know exactly what a person needs to do to lose weight and manage their weight, regardless of WLR or gender bias. When I learned how, after 25 years of failure, I lost 140 pounds through behavior medicine and the therapeutic psychogenics I discovered, and I have maintained my ideal body weight for more than 25 years. I’ve taught many patients and clients to do the same. Now I teach other therapists too. Obesity can be solved, even when it has seemed impossible.

We need to stop blaming, hating and discriminating against obese people, but equally important, we need to use what we know to solve obesity and the obesity epidemic. That is the real solution to the evil of obesity bias. The good news is that the solution is at hand, right in front of us, for those who seek it.

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Summer appetites can destroy diets

Summer is more than lazy and hazy. It can drive your diet crazy.

It not only affects eaters. Cooks, too, have trouble facing a hot kitchen on a hot day. The result is we often eat out without thought of our diets, i.e. Big Macs and ice cream.

Guess what happens? In summer’s heat, your body’s digestive system turns down its power. Our capacity to digest decreases. This is the opposite of cold seasons, where our systems need more carbohydrates and turn up our appetite for heavy foods.

Ever feel bloated after a light summer meal? That’s the digestive effect.

Nutritionists notice we eat less in summer. That means what we eat should be rich in nutrients. We don’t need the calories, but we do need the protein and vitamins. Shop carefully.

You would think we’d lose weight easily in summer, but no.  Heat causes us to nap a lot more, especially after meals. Exercising outdoors gets harder, and indeed dangerous, on very hot days. That’s bad news, as any fats we consume then go straight to places we don’t want them. Summer can be the season many of us gain the most weight.  

And then we have air conditioning, in businesses, vehicles and at home. We crave comfort, but when we must go out in the heat, it’s like hitting a wall. This kills appetites faster than raw liver. (How did our ancestors survive without air? Their bodies got accustomed to the heat, and it didn’t bother them.)

On the plus side, sales of salads and other “light” foods explode every summer. The problem comes when they do not provide enough protein. That’s needed in summer as your body fights the effects of hot weather.

The best salad would be one with cold shrimp or a chicken breast on top. Watch the creamy dressings. They can have more fat calories than the rest of the bowl.

And don’t forget the hydration thing, and we’re not talking about cold beer or gin and tonics. Good, old, cold H-2-O is best for thirst quenching, followed by iced tea and fruit juices.  


You’d think a hamburger on the grill is a simple meal. Choices get complex if safe eating and summer nutrition bug you.

HOW TO COOK: Rare takes the chance of uncooked bacteria that causes food poisoning. Well done increases the HCAs from contact of meat to a hot grill, and they increase your chance of cancer. Medium is your best choice if health is your concern.

WITH CHEESE: If you’re looking for calcium, cheese can be a star, but it does add fat and cholesterol. The star of stars here is low-fat Swiss. It has more calcium with less fat of any other melting cheese.

CONDIMENTS: Mustard offers benefits beyond ketchup. It’s at half the calories, and the turmeric it contains calms down tissue inflation, a cause of obesity.

YOUR DRINK: Nutritionists are bubbly about red grapefruit juice. It’s a great summer source of Vitamin C and lycopenes, much higher than other fruit juices.

YOUR ADULT DRINK: Michelob Light is a top-rated American brew at 123 calories per 12 ounces. For a cocktail, try this version of Long Island iced tea, a winner from our friends to the east. It’s the low-calorie champ, much lower than most other mixed cocktails. Recipe, please:


Three parts each of vodka, bourbon, white rum, Triple Sec and gin
Five parts lemonade
Splash of ice tea, for color

Shake and serve in highball glass over cracked ice with a twist of lemon or lime.


•Fresh fruits and produce. They’re in season. Ask for locally produced items. Fresh means highest nutritional benefits and best taste.

•Chilled soups. If you’ve never discovered them, they are a huge summer treat. A tomato gazpacho or cold potato or cucumber soup are naturally low calorie and low fat, perfect for summer. Studies show a soup appetizer helps cut back on your desire to overeat.

•Watermelon. Don’t forget the grandpappy of summer treats. They are 50 percent water for the thirsty and fiber rich. The new ones are much smaller with few seeds.

•Grillin’. Throw some sliced vegetables onto the grill. It adds a welcome flavor addition. Make pita sandwiches with the leftovers, with yogurt dressing. Grilled fruits are so good, you won’t miss the pie or ice cream for dessert.

•Freezer fun. Ever had frozen grapes? They beat Popsicles and are good for you. Likewise frozen bananas, dark cherries and all manner of berries. Your won’t miss the ice-cream bars.


3 cloves garlic, mashed
3 slices white bread, cubed
2 green peppers
3  pounds tomatoes, peeled
1 cucumber, peeled and sliced
1 onion, sliced
1 red bell pepper, sliced
1/4 cup chopped parsley
6 tablespoons white wine vinegar
5 tablespoons olive oil
Dash sugar

 Place everything in a blender and puree until smooth. Refrigerate for at least six hours for flavors to meld. Whisk just before serving and garnish with lemon or lime slices or diced vegetables.


2 cups chicken broth, defatted
1 teaspoon dried or 1 tablespoon of fresh dill, chopped
Juice of 1/2 lemon
Salt and white pepper to taste
2 medium cucumbers, peeled, seeded and sliced in rounds

Mix broth and seasonings and add cucumbers. Chill covered for three hours. Just before serving, slice two green onions including some of tops as a garnish.


•Use a variety of greens including romaine and Boston bib. Add fresh spinach, argil and endive leaves.

•Toss in sliced produce, whatever you have. Consider grilling it for a new flavor.

•Add protein such as grilled steak, chicken or seafood, hot or cold. Ham, tuna and hard-boiled eggs are good additions. For extra protein, add cashews, seeds or cottage cheese.

•Avoid fat in dressing with a vinaigrette. It should be added right before serving or serve on the side to allow guests to choose how much to use.


1 cup olive oil
1/4 cup chicken broth
1/2 cup cider vinegar
2 cloves garlic, iced
2  teaspoons brown mustard such as Dusseldorf
1/2 teaspoon sugar
1 teaspoon dried herbs (bail, oregano or tarragon)
Salt and pepper to taste

Place all ingredients in a food processor or blender and puree until smooth. Or, place in a cruet, cover and shake. Refrigerate for two hours. Shake again before serving.

 Notes: Chopped olives or capers or diced shallots are good additions. Use an extra fine olive oil for best flavor.

Wodraska: Don’t get burned by the acid diet

Are you acidic or alkaline? This is a question you are going to get asked — or at least hear about — in the future.

The idea of an acid vs. alkaline diet isn’t new, but it does seem to be gaining interest as more people tune in to how their bodies respond to certain foods.

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Proponents of alkaline diets believe we are at our healthiest when we are eating more alkaline foods — think fruits and vegetables — and fewer acidic foods, which include grains, fish, meat, dairy products, salt, alcohol, caffeine, cooked oils and sugars.

Alkaline foods help us maintain a proper blood pH level and avoid the loss of minerals such as potassium, magnesium and calcium.

Of course, everyone knows that most Americans eat too many processed foods and proteins and not enough fresh fruits and vegetables.

In 2011, the average American consumed 630 pounds of milk, yogurt, cheese and ice cream per year, according to statistics from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In addition, each of us ate 185 pounds of meat (chicken, turkey, pork and beef), 197 pounds of grains and 141 pounds of sweeteners. In contrast, we ate just 273 pounds of fruit per person and 415 pounds of vegetables.

Looking at the numbers, it’s easy to see how people could be considered “acidic.”

There have only been a few studies that looked at the acid vs. alkaline diet.

In one study, published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, participants who received a bicarbonate that was equivalent to nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily experienced lower levels of calcium loss in urine than those who didn’t receive it. Researchers concluded that increasing the alkaline content of the diet is a safe approach to preventing osteoporosis and improving bone health.

Of course, doctors and dietitians have always promoted fruits and vegetables as a way to increase health and vitality.

My advice: Don’t get caught up in the acid vs. alkaline debate. Just focus on healthy eating. Consume more fruits and vegetables and cut back on processed foods. Cut back on grains and dairy, too, both of which can cause inflammatory reactions.

Finally, don’t worry about pH levels and don’t get sucked into buying diet plans or pH strips.

Save your green and spend it on vegetables instead.

Lya Wodraska is a certified CHEK Practitioner and Holistic Lifestyle Coach. Contact her at:, or Twitter: @LyaWodraska.

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