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It’s Time To Admit That ‘Diet’ Food Is Bogus

For the casual follower of nutrition trends, this may sound obvious. But data on consumer habits show we’re still eating this stuff, according to Zhaoping Li, the director of the Center of Human Nutrition at the University of California-Los Angeles. Just take one look at the grocery aisle and you’ll see beloved brands like Halo Top and Arctic Zero ice cream, for example, appearing in droves.

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It’s Time To Admit That ‘Diet’ Food Is Bogus

For the casual follower of nutrition trends, this may sound obvious. But data on consumer habits show we’re still eating this stuff, according to Zhaoping Li, the director of the Center of Human Nutrition at the University of California-Los Angeles. Just take one look at the grocery aisle and you’ll see beloved brands like Halo Top and Arctic Zero ice cream, for example, appearing in droves.

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The Definitive Guide to the Ketogenic Diet

A year ago, I solved an energy crisis. I had signed up for a 24-hour, unsupported, military-style team endurance event that would involve carrying hundreds of pounds of gear over 50 miles, a bit of swimming, and a thousand or so burpees tossed in for good measure. All things considered, I would burn just north of 15,000 calories during the event.

As I stood scanning the energy bar aisle at my local outdoor store, I realized that carrying even half my calorie requirements in my favorite bars, at $3.50 a pop, would run me $73.50—half the cost of feeding a family of four for an entire week.

I decided to improvise and pointed my truck toward a nearby discount grocery store. There, I considered my needs: a huge amount of calories in a small package and, preferably, something tasty. I grabbed peanut butter, jelly, and a seedy wheat bread—and some thin-sliced mozzarella, because why not. The resultant sandwich, while admittedly strange, packed in more than 30 grams of protein—the magic number for refueling working muscle, according to a 2009 study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association—and nearly 700 calories. Yet it took up no more room in my pack, cost just 80 cents each, and was truly delicious. The math: per calorie, the bars would have been ten times more expensive.

Figuring out what the hell to eat is a common dilemma for anyone who’s ever gone for a long run or ride or embarked on a multiday adventure. Sure, energy bars and goos are quick and convenient, but after a while, the awful taste and high sugar content can wreak havoc on your stomach. Instead, with a little planning, you can make some killer DIY endurance eats at home—just as packable but infinitely better-tasting and cheaper.

With the help of Trevor Kashey, Florida-based registered dietitian and owner of Relentless Dietetics, and Rachele Beck, a nutritionist based in Utah’s Wasatch Front—as well as a few ultra-athletes—we developed seven endurance recipes packed with high-value nutritional-impact ingredients that are easy on your stomach and so tasty you might even eat them when your heart rate is below 100 beats per minute.


CBB Sandwich

The average American consumes 1,500 PBJs before graduating high school. And with two simple tweaks—swapping peanut butter for cashew butter and jelly for mashed banana—the classic pulls double duty as an ideal endurance fuel. The only thing you shouldn’t tweak? The bread—stick to old-fashioned Wonder Bread. Wrap it in tinfoil, and force the malleable sandwich into any miniscule bag or pocket space you can find.

Why It Works: Bananas deliver the electrolyte potassium and an equal ratio of glucose and fructose, a combo researchers in New Zealand say can boost endurance and gut comfort. Cashews—one of the highest-carbohydrate nuts—pack in magnesium, a critical electrolyte that almost half of Americans don’t get enough of, according to a study in Nutritional Reviews. Why Wonder Bread? It’s cheap, fortified with vitamins and minerals, and highly processed, which means your stomach won’t have to work as hard digesting it compared to a whole-wheat, seedy bread. That’ll help you avoid GI issues.

How to Tweak It: Want a bigger protein punch? Stir protein powder into the mashed banana. If you’re on a budget, swap the cashew butter for regular old peanut butter, which drops each sandwich’s cost to 53 cents.

How To Make It: Simply make a sandwich with the following ingredients.

  • 2 slices Wonder Bread
  • 1 ripe banana, mashed
  • 2 tablespoons cashew butter

Calories: 395
Carbs: 53 grams
Fat: 20 grams
Protein: 9 grams
Price Per Serving: $1.20
Calories Per Dollar: 329


Banana, Egg, and Arrowroot Pancake

Most people who drop out of ultramarathons cite gastrointestinal issues, according to researchers at Gettysburg College. That’s because intense exercise pulls blood from your digestive system and shuttles it to your working muscles. Set up your breadbasket for success: harness the power of a root that man has been eating for 7,000 years and that scientists are now realizing has GI benefits.

Why It Works: Arrowroot, a starch made from the roots of several tropical plants, may reduce stomach issues, suggests a small study published in 2000 in the Brazilian journal Arquivos De Gastroenterologia. Eggs are a complete protein, meaning they contain the nine essential amino acids your body needs to function optimally, and offer less risk of stomach issues compared to dairy-based proteins, which appear in classic flapjacks.

How to Tweak It: Add an extra egg white to increase the protein content. Or slather your favorite nut butter or honey between pancakes to boost the calories. You can drop the cost to just 45 cents per serving by using regular white flour, if your stomach allows.

How To Make It: Mix the following ingredients into a batter. Pour the batter onto a hot pan and cook until done, flipping once.

  • 1/2 cup arrowroot flour
  • 1 ripe banana
  • 1 egg

Calories: 397
Carbs: 83 grams
Fat: 5 grams
Protein: 7 grams
Price Per Serving: $1.25
Calories Per Dollar: 318


Turkey-Beet-Bacon Wrap

I’ll never forget one of the best meals I’ve ever had: a cup of hot broth in a foam Dixie cup, handed to me by a race volunteer at the finish line of a cold October Jersey Shore half marathon. When you’ve spent the past hour or two pouring sweat, nothing beats salty, savory comfort foods. That’s what this turkey-and-beet wrap delivers, along with extra carbs and protein—plus bacon. Wind it tight and it’ll take up the same space as an energy bar.

Why It Works: Turkey delivers protein and endurance-boosting vitamins and minerals like B6, B12, niacin, choline, selenium, and zinc. Opt for the sliced deli variety, which has more salt (you’ll need it). The nitrates in beets may boost your endurance and improve blood flow, according to a study in the Applied Journal of Physiology, and white tortillas digest quickly.

How to Tweak It: If you’re working at a high heart rate, use two tortillas and reduce the turkey to one ounce. That ups the quick-digesting carbs and reduces the load on your digestive system. Toss in a handful of spinach for an antioxidant and potassium boost.

How to Make It: Construct a wrap using the following ingredients.

  • 1 white tortilla
  • 3 ounces deli turkey
  • 2 to 3 sliced beets (from can)
  • 1 slice bacon

Calories: 285
Carbs: 32 grams
Fat: 10 grams
Protein: 20 grams
Price Per Serving: $1.40
Calories Per Dollar: 204


Waffle-Tofu-Honey Sandwich

Performance waffles might be convenient, but they don’t have as much flavor, value, or protein as this at-home variety, which features honey, tofu, and timeless Eggo waffles.

Why It Works: Honey is nature’s energy goo. Researchers at the University of Memphis described it as a “cocktail of various sugars” that improved the performance of cyclists just as much as an expensive endurance goo. Tofu offers easy-to-digest, taste-free protein that’s high in the electrolyte calcium. Waffles are a secret weapon of endurance champions; the frozen variety is convenient and fortified with vitamins and minerals.

How to Tweak It: Use half the ingredient quantities for shorter efforts. If you can’t stand tofu, keep the protein high by subbing in a piece or two of thin-sliced, salty deli ham.

How to Make It: Simply make a sandwich with the following ingredients.

  • 2 Eggo waffles
  • 2 tablespoons honey
  • 3 ounces firm tofu

Calories: 399
Carbs: 63 grams
Fat: 11 grams
Protein: 14 grams
Price Per Serving: $1.22
Calories Per Dollar: 318


Rice and Ginger Balls

Ultrarunner Nickademus Hollon, who won the notoriously difficult Barkley Marathons in 2013 and has routine dealt with stomach issues, discovered these treats while testing out different on-trail foods. The secret ingredient? Ginger, which the Chinese have been using to aid digestion and treat upset stomach for more than 2,000 years. Hollon says the balls are cheap (this is the cheapest recipe here) and easy to make.

Why It Works: Sticky rice delivers an easy-to-digest endurance fuel. Science backs the ancient Eastern remedy—ginger can settle your stomach, say researchers in the UK, and may also relieve post-exercise soreness, according to a study in the Journal of Pain.

How to Tweak It: Splash a dash of soy sauce into the mixture to increase the salt content and to add the complex flavor of umami, a Japanese word that roughly translates to “deliciousness.” Or toss in some chopped pecans for a boost of high-energy fat and tasty texture. They’re the highest-antioxidant nut, according to a USDA study.

How to Make It: Mix the following ingredients together and shape into ping-pong-sized balls. Recipe makes about eight.

  • 2 cups cooked sticky rice
  • 1 ounce pickled ginger, chopped

Calories Per Ball: 48
Carbs: 11 grams
Fat: 0 grams
Protein: 1 gram
Price Per Serving: $0.12
Calories Per Dollar: 400


Avocado Mash

Avocados—once a rare, seasonal treat—are now mainstream. Sales of the fruit quadrupled from 2000 to 2015, and you can find them in grocery stores from Bangor to Beaverton and everywhere in between. And that’s a good thing for all you ketogenic converts. Mashed in a Ziploc with a little salt, avocado is the perfect packable keto fuel.

Why It Works: A medium avocado has 250 calories and 20 vitamins and minerals. Beyond endurance, the avocado’s general health benefits are stellar. Eight studies show that their fats can boost heart health and promote healthy aging. Sea salt contains more of the electrolytes and minerals you lose through sweat compared to regular salt.

How to Tweak It: If you’re not on the keto bandwagon but like the idea of an all-natural endurance paste, add carbs to the mash in the form of a slow-roasted sweet potato.

How to Make It: Dump all ingredients into a sealable plastic bag. Mash them together. Mid-endurance effort, bite off a corner the bag and squeeze the contents into your mouth.

  • 1 medium avocado
  • 1 pinch sea salt

Calories: 250
Carbs: 13 grams
Fat: 23 grams
Protein: 3 grams
Price Per Serving: $1
Calories Per Dollar: 250


Power Balls

Consider these 13-ingredient bites as miniature power plants. Beck’s recipe takes a bit more prep work than the others on this list, but the magic is that the balls are designed to be made in bulk and frozen. Beck says her clients will grab a couple power balls from the freezer for shorter efforts or fill a sack for lower-intensity, multihour runs and rides.

Why It Works: The nut mixture delivers a huge amount of selenium and essential fatty acids, which are key for energy. Oats and honey offer complex, instant energy. Coconut counteracts inflammation. Indeed, with so many natural ingredients, your body won’t be missing much.

How to Tweak It: However you want. Beck says the best way to make these is to experiment with ingredients and flavors you love. For example, you could swap the honey for Grade B maple syrup or pitted dates, or add any nuts or ingredients you like, such as cocoa nibs, which pack in cardio-healthy polyphenols. You could also swap the almond milk for canned pumpkin, which is high in vitamin C and potassium.

How to Make It: Dump all the ingredients except the almond butter and almond milk into a food processor or blender and pulse. After a minute or two of pulsing, add the almond butter and almond milk, continuing to pulse until the mixture is sticky and moist. Shape the mix into small one-inch balls and place on a cookie sheet. Place the sheet in the freezer for a few hours.

  • 1/2 cup oatmeal
  • 1/4 cup cocoa powder
  • 1 cups shredded raw coconut
  • 1/4 cup flax seeds
  • 1/4 cup chia seeds
  • 1/2 cup raw pecans
  • 1/2 raw sunflower seeds
  • 1/2 cup any other raw nuts (cashews, pumpkin, almonds, macadamia, brazil, or hazelnuts)
  • 3/4 cup hemp seeds
  • 3 scoops plant-based protein powder (chocolate or vanilla)
  • 1/2 cup honey
  • 1 cup fresh ground peanut or almond butter
  • 1/2 cup almond milk (low sugar)

Calories Per Ball: 81
Carbs: 3.6 grams
Fat: 6.6 grams
Protein: 3.1 grams
Price Per Serving: $0.25
Calories Per Dollar: 324

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Food for thought: reconstructing the diet of Napoleon’s Grand Army

Understanding the historic past can be incredibly challenging. Written records are only as accurate as the knowledge of the author, and historical narratives can be influenced by political orientations and specific agendas. Even accurate depictions of historical events may not reveal the whole truth; how some people may have experienced a particular event may differ radically from how the majority of people experienced it. The version of history that makes its way into history books can be incomplete.

That’s why archaeology is necessary to corroborate written documents of historical events. Physical evidence is a powerful check on speculation, deceit, and inaccuracy.

But archaeology and its related discipline, biological anthropology, can do more than just confirm or falsify historical narratives; it can reveal details of people’s lives (and deaths) unobtainable through other means. Paleopathology can tell us exactly how young men died on a July afternoon in 1863 in a Pennsylvania peach orchard, or how an older man spent the last few hours of his life 5,000 years ago. Anthropological genetics can tell us that an anonymous skeleton found under a parking lot belonged to a famous king whose family tree was not quite what recorded history claims.

And stable isotope analysis can tell us about diet in ancient times: what a person eats is literally archived in his or her bones. If your diet consists mainly of C4 plants (like corn, sorghum, and millet) which undergo a particular photosynthetic pathway, you likely have a different ratio of isotopic elements 13C and 12C (carbon atoms with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei) than if you eat mostly C3 plants (temperate crops like barley, wheat, and potatoes), which undergo a different photosynthetic pathway.

Live near the coast and eat seafood? You likely have more 13C relative to 12C than inland dwellers because your carbon derives mainly from the ocean rather than the atmosphere. The ratio of nitrogen isotopes 15N and 14N will be similarly dependent on what kinds of food you eat. Finally, your isotopic ratios will also reflect how much of your diet is derived from animal vs. plant sources (your “trophic level”).

Together, and in the context of region-wide studies of isotopic ratios from different historical periods, the analysis of multiple stable isotopes can give a good indication of the diet of different individuals in the past.

I was thinking of how this kind of study can tell us such personal stories of history while reading a recent study in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology by Sammantha Holder and colleagues: Reconstructing diet in Napoleon’s Grand Army using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis.

Napoleon’s Russian campaign of 1812 was marked by terrible logistical disaster and resulted in profound loss of life within his own army. Although his forces reached Moscow, they found the city abandoned and burning—a deliberate tactic on the part of the Russian army to prevent the French soldiers from finding provisions.

Forced to retreat to find supplies, the French encountered terrible winter conditions and further disruptions to their supply lines. Total estimates of casualties vary, but hundreds of thousands of soldiers died in the campaign, many due to the combination of starvation, disease, and exposure while the army retreated.

The practice of requiring soldiers to “live off the land” to supplement their rations likely contributed a great deal to this loss of life. This rendered them extremely vulnerable to the Russians’ scorched earth tactics which left them little to forage or steal. But Napoleon’s Grande Armée was ethnically and socially heterogeneous. Were their origins, social status, and access to food during this time of deprivation reflected in their diet? This is one of the questions that Holder et al. set out to address in their research.

They analysed stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from the remains of 78 individuals excavated from a Napoleonic-era mass grave in Vilnius, Lithuania where the army had retreated in December of 1812. The presence of uniform buttons from multiple Napoleonic regiments in the grave confirmed that most of these individuals were members of the army. However, it is unlikely that everyone in the grave was necessarily a soldier; many male and female civilians were associated with the military in various capacities, and female remains were found in the mass grave.



Skeletons of soldiers of the great army of Napoleon are uncovered after they were discovered at a building site in Frankfurt, western Germany, on September 17, 2015. The remains of some 200 dead soldiers in total of the Napoleonic Army of 1813, on the way back after the defeat of Napoleon during his Russian campaign, are expected to be found. Photograph: Daniel Roland/AFP/Getty Images

Holder et al. found surprising variation in isotopic ratios among the individuals excavated from the mass grave. For example, one group of individuals had primarily C4-based diets, suggesting that they may have originated from Italy or Poland where similar isotopic ratios have been found in remains from this period. This interpretation was bolstered by the presence of buttons from the uniforms of Italian and Polish regiments in the mass grave.

However, the majority of individuals from the grave ate C3 plant-based diets—characteristic of many Northern European countries–but individuals differed significantly in the amount of terrestrial animal protein they consumed.

One group, which ate limited animal protein, may have been regular soldiers or conscripts. Another cluster of individuals, which included three women, ate a diet containing a significantly higher amount of terrestrial animal protein. The authors interpret this result to indicate they were high-ranking officers (and perhaps their family members).

Holder et al. concluded that the strikingly wide range of isotopic ratios found in the remains from the mass grave was “indicative of dietary variation associated with a multiethnic and socially stratified military population.”

These results are perhaps not all that surprising. Napoleon’s Grande Armée is known to have been composed of soldiers from multiple populations, including French, Polish, Austrians, Italians, and Spanish. C3 plants (wheat and barley) are known to have been the most commonly consumed plants in Northern European diets. C4 plants (such as millet) were often consumed in southern Europe, and thus the isotopic ratios of the soldiers may have reflected their geographic origins. In addition, the amount of meat in a diet was directly related to social status. Class differences between officers, regular soldiers, conscripts, and camp followers would have likely meant that there was unequal access to certain kinds of foods (such as meat) most of the campaign. Limited supplies during the winter retreat from Russia would have likely driven this inequality of access to even more extremes.

Interestingly, when compared to other European military forces (such as members of Britain’s Royal Navy buried in a cemetery at Gosport), the dietary variation in the French army was significantly higher. As more studies of this type are conducted, it will be interesting to see if other countries’ armies were similarly diverse in their diet. I would be particularly curious to see how Napoleon’s Russian opponents ate during the same period of time.

As we said in the introductory post to our new blog, archaeological inference is based on complex, multi-layered evidence, and takes a holistic approach to understanding the past. Holder et al.’s study is a good example of how even the large scale events of history can be illuminated through an archaeological study of the tiniest details of individual people’s lives.

Further reading

Holder S. et al. 2017. Reconstructing diet in Napoleon’s Grand Army using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23184

What is the South Beach diet, what foods are restricted, is it safe and …

IF you were jetting off for a sunny holiday in Florida, you’d want to look as good as the locals do.

That’s the premise behind the South Beach diet, which encourages people to keep their bikini bodies in shape all year round.

The South Beach diet was originally created for heart patients in the United States

South Beach is a glamorous neighbourhood in Miami. Here’s everything you need to know about the diet the area inspired.

What is the South Beach diet?

The South Beach diet is a low-GI diet, which was originally developed for heart patients in the United States.

It’s a low-GI diet, with limited sugar and starch

The plan became popular when cardiologist Arthur Agatston released his best-selling book The South Beach Diet: The Delicious, Doctor-Designed, Foolproof Plan for Fast and Healthy Weight Loss.

You don’t calorie count or limit your portions on the plan, and dieters are encouraged to eat three meals and two snacks-a-day.

The emphasis is on eating high-fibre foods with lots of lean protein, while avoiding unsaturated fats and starchy carbs.

The first stage of the diet is designed for rapid weight loss, promising a shed of up to 13lb in the first two weeks.

Skinny Nicole Kidman, pictured at the Golden Globe awards, follows the diet

How does the South Beach diet work?

Phase one:

Reduce cravings for sugar and starch, and cut out nearly all carbohydrates to jump-start weight loss.

On the banned list is all pasta, rice, bread, fruit and alcohol.

Dieters focus on eating lean protein – such as seafood, skinless poultry, lean beef and soy products.

They can also eat high-fibre vegetables, low-fat dairy, and foods with healthy unsaturated fats such as avocados, nuts and seeds.

A typical breakfast or snack could be a low-fat fruit smoothie

Phase two:

Begin to re-introduce wholegrain carbs such as brown bread, pasta and rice – as well as fruit and a more extensive list of vegetables.

Dieters should stay in this phase until they reach their goal weight.

Phase three:

The life-long diet phase. All foods can be eaten in moderation, as long as dieters continue to follow the basis South Beach principles.

Is the South Beach diet safe?

The NHS warn: “The severe dietary restrictions of phase one may leave you feeling weak and you will miss out on some vitamins, minerals and fibre.

“You may initially experience side effects such as bad breath, a dry mouth, tiredness, dizziness, insomnia, nausea and constipation.”

None of which sounds particularly pleasant. The good news is, these negative side effects will only last for two weeks.

Sex and the City’s Kim Cattrall is also a fan

The British Dietitian Association (BMA) say that amount of weight loss promised in the first two weeks is ‘worrying’.

The association also warns that some of the shed will be from carb and water weight, which will be put back on as soon as you start eating normally.

The main positive of the diet is that, after phases one and two, there are fewer restrictions than on many popular meal plans.

Broadly speaking, the diet follows the principles of a recommended healthy diet.

Are there any celebrity success stories on the South Beach diet?

Lots of celebrities follow the South Beach diet, largely in the States – where it originated.

Sex and the City star Kim Cattrall, who recently appeared in Agatha Christie’s BBC Christmas special Witness for the Prosecution, follows the plan.

Trailer for Agatha Christie’s The Witness for the Prosecution on BBC

Former president Bill Clinton, the husband of Donald Trump’s opponent Hillary, claims to have lost two and a half stone on the diet.

Actress Nicole Kidman and talk show host Oprah Winfrey are also thought to be fans.



 

What is the South Beach diet, what foods are restricted, is it safe and …

IF you were jetting off for a sunny holiday in Florida, you’d want to look as good as the locals do.

That’s the premise behind the South Beach diet, which encourages people to keep their bikini bodies in shape all year round.

The South Beach diet was originally created for heart patients in the United States

South Beach is a glamorous neighbourhood in Miami. Here’s everything you need to know about the diet the area inspired.

What is the South Beach diet?

The South Beach diet is a low-GI diet, which was originally developed for heart patients in the United States.

It’s a low-GI diet, with limited sugar and starch

The plan became popular when cardiologist Arthur Agatston released his best-selling book The South Beach Diet: The Delicious, Doctor-Designed, Foolproof Plan for Fast and Healthy Weight Loss.

You don’t calorie count or limit your portions on the plan, and dieters are encouraged to eat three meals and two snacks-a-day.

The emphasis is on eating high-fibre foods with lots of lean protein, while avoiding unsaturated fats and starchy carbs.

The first stage of the diet is designed for rapid weight loss, promising a shed of up to 13lb in the first two weeks.

Skinny Nicole Kidman, pictured at the Golden Globe awards, follows the diet

How does the South Beach diet work?

Phase one:

Reduce cravings for sugar and starch, and cut out nearly all carbohydrates to jump-start weight loss.

On the banned list is all pasta, rice, bread, fruit and alcohol.

Dieters focus on eating lean protein – such as seafood, skinless poultry, lean beef and soy products.

They can also eat high-fibre vegetables, low-fat dairy, and foods with healthy unsaturated fats such as avocados, nuts and seeds.

A typical breakfast or snack could be a low-fat fruit smoothie

Phase two:

Begin to re-introduce wholegrain carbs such as brown bread, pasta and rice – as well as fruit and a more extensive list of vegetables.

Dieters should stay in this phase until they reach their goal weight.

Phase three:

The life-long diet phase. All foods can be eaten in moderation, as long as dieters continue to follow the basis South Beach principles.

Is the South Beach diet safe?

The NHS warn: “The severe dietary restrictions of phase one may leave you feeling weak and you will miss out on some vitamins, minerals and fibre.

“You may initially experience side effects such as bad breath, a dry mouth, tiredness, dizziness, insomnia, nausea and constipation.”

None of which sounds particularly pleasant. The good news is, these negative side effects will only last for two weeks.

Sex and the City’s Kim Cattrall is also a fan

The British Dietitian Association (BMA) say that amount of weight loss promised in the first two weeks is ‘worrying’.

The association also warns that some of the shed will be from carb and water weight, which will be put back on as soon as you start eating normally.

The main positive of the diet is that, after phases one and two, there are fewer restrictions than on many popular meal plans.

Broadly speaking, the diet follows the principles of a recommended healthy diet.

Are there any celebrity success stories on the South Beach diet?

Lots of celebrities follow the South Beach diet, largely in the States – where it originated.

Sex and the City star Kim Cattrall, who recently appeared in Agatha Christie’s BBC Christmas special Witness for the Prosecution, follows the plan.

Trailer for Agatha Christie’s The Witness for the Prosecution on BBC

Former president Bill Clinton, the husband of Donald Trump’s opponent Hillary, claims to have lost two and a half stone on the diet.

Actress Nicole Kidman and talk show host Oprah Winfrey are also thought to be fans.



 

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